The Sevastopol aquarium
The Sevastopol marine Aquarium-Museum is one of the oldest public aquariums in Europe, is the oldest marine aquarium in the country. It was founded in 1897 in the Sevastopol biological station, which is not only the oldest Russian station, but also fifth in the world in the time of its creation.
The Central pool has a diameter of 9.2 m and a depth of 1.5 m. Wall aquariums with a height of 1.1 m and capacity up to 7 cubic metres at a comfortable viewing level. They use sea water, which comes from Artillery Bay, first in an underground sump with a capacity of 200 cubic meters and then fed into the pool and wall aquariums.
Continuous change of water at a total flow rate of 120-150 cubic meters per day by using powerful pumps. In stormy weather, when the water in the Bay becomes turbid, the tank is transferred to a closed system of water circulation through the sump.
At any time of the year in the aquarium you can see about 40 species of black sea animals. Of course, this is only a very minor part of the fauna of the sea, where only fish reported 150 species. But animals are very diverse in structure and lifestyle, and several types of algae, so that visitors to create a fairly complete picture of the flora and fauna of the Black sea .
Caught for the aquarium animals found near Sebastopol, and well (or even tolerably) perenoxiaschie life in captivity. A special team of fishermen adds new animals aquariums and supplies them with necessary food. Better than others endure bondage and coastal demersal fish; moving the inhabitants of the high seas in vitro can not live.
In wall aquariums simulates the situation in different areas of the sea and picked up living in such conditions fish. For example, in aquarium No. 1 — fish, living on sandy bottom, no 2 — the inhabitants of the thickets of Zostera, No. 7 — residents of coastal rocky soils. At the same time aquariums with bottom fish sometimes supplemented by a pelagic fish living in the water column. This allows you to compare them and see the uniqueness of each.
Currently in the Sevastopol aquarium has 4 rooms:
In the first room shown is typical of coral reefs. Small size aquariums allow visitors to consider in detail small fish, shrimp and invertebrates.
The second room has 2 independent sections: the black sea and the tropics. Each aquarium tropical section has an independent (separate) closed system for the preparation and purification of water. These systems allow keeping in artificial conditions even tropical sharks.
In the third room of the Museum contains a large collection of tropical exotic animals, inhabitants of the Indian and Atlantic oceans.
The last room is inhabited by representatives of freshwater and reptiles. Here is a very interesting aquarium with a greenhouse, simulating the ruins of an ancient Cambodian temple.
Aquarium in Sevastopol biological station opened 1897. The station was established in 1871, on the proposal of the young N. N. Miklouho-Maclay, the famous Russian traveler and researcher. Before that Russia had no special base for the study of the biology of the seas, and the proposal of N. N. Maclay was warmly supported by advanced scientists. In creating the station direct participation the largest Russian biologists A. O. Kovalevskii and I. I. Mechnikov, I. M. Sechenov. At the entrance to the Museum there are busts of N. N. Maclay and A. O. Kovalevsky. A special building for the station was built in 1897 (then it repeatedly expanded and reconstructed); and here was opened to visitors demonstration aquarium with marine animals.
The first Director of the station has become famed native biologist academician A. O. Kovalevsky, the name of which is now the Institute of biology of the southern seas.
After the October revolution of research at the station was headed by academicians V. I. Palladin, N. V. Nasonov, a member-correspondent of the USSR Academy of Sciences V. A. Vodyanitsky. By 1940, hundreds of researchers have published scientific works on materials received at the station.
During the great Patriotic war the building was badly damaged by bombing and fire. Burned scientific library.
After the liberation of Sevastopol, in the spring of 1945, the station began restoration work. Under the leadership of Director Vladimir Vodyanitsky in subsequent years, station staff have received extensive research materials, which enabled a true assessment of communities the level of productivity of the Black sea, formed a large team of scientists, and in 1963 the station was reorganized into the Institute of biology of southern seas, the offices of which were Odessa and Karadag biological station.
For successful research the sea, its fauna in 1971 in connection with the anniversary date — the centenary of the founding of the Institute was awarded the order of red banner of Labor.
C 1994 the Sevastopol Aquarium-Museum is rented by CJSC “Trade house Gess & co”.
In the Central hall, above all, pays attention to the pool, which smoothly, confidently moving large fish and flocks of “little things”; they then hurriedly rush about, stop. But I must say that all the inhabitants of the Central basin live quite peacefully, and the visitor will not see here “the bloody dramas”.
But one day the sailors of Sevastopol fishery Association “Atlantic” presented the Museum with two sea lions. These large seals are arranged in the Central pool of complete defeat. Together with them to contain any fish was not possible. Intelligent, but noisy animals and are not really explain. The roar of sea lions echoed through all floors of the Institute.
How to get there?
The building of the Institute of biology of the southern seas is situated in the center of Sevastopol, near the Grafskaya Wharf. It seems embedded in the high shore of Artillery Bay and fully revealed only from the sea. In the lower floor of the Institute is the Sevastopol marine aquarium-Museum. Public transport stop “the Area of Admiral Nakhimov”.